Robert Koch may be considered the founder of medical bacteriology, and he was the driving force in the development of microbiology. Koch discovered the causes of tuberculosis and cholera and played a major role in the development of hygiene and public health. The techniques he developed, have served as major tools of research in the whole field of medicine. Kochs associates and followers, using his techniques, discovered the whole array of bacteria that were the major scourges of humans. These discoveries led directly to the development of vaccines and other immunological procedures, and (ultimately) to the discovery of antibiotics.
Kochs major contributions were recognized by the award of the Nobel Prize in 1905.